ARAKS Experiment 1975


(Artificial Radiation and Aurora at Kerguelen and Soviet Union)

 

 

 

The ARAKS Project (Artificial Radiation and Aurora at Kerguelen and Soviet Union) was carried out by the launch of two French geophysical rockets Eridan on 26 of January and 15 of February of 1975 from Kerguelen island. The primary goal of the experiment was study of magnetically conjugated effects in points Kerguelen Arkhangelsk Region (North of USSR) and was realized as continuation of the French-Soviet cooperation in space. It was a kind of active experiments because the conjugation was checked by use of artificial electron beam injected from the rocket and registration of the effects produced by the beam in magnetically conjugated point. Simultaneously the plasma emissions stimulated by electron beam in near rocket area were controlled by diagnostic payload separated from the rocket. In comparison with other active experiments ARAKS could be characterized by the following features:

The rockets were launched from more higher latitudes (L-parameter was near 3.8) what provided more deviation of the geomagnetic field from the dipole configuration, larger length of geomagnetic field line, more intensive wave-particle interaction in geomagnetic equator plane where the kinetic energy density is comparable or even higher than the magnetic field energy density.

The high values of geomagnetic field in the northern hemisphere created the good mirror conditions for particles even for comparatively low altitude of the rocket launch at Kerguelen (near 200 km). Three different pitch angles of injection, different duration and sequences of pulses of the electron gun, two different energies of electrons (27 and 15 keV) opened opportunity for better studies of the wave-particle interaction mechanisms.

For the first time in the world practice the wideband (0.1 5 MHz) studies of emissions stimulated by electron beam where carried out onboard the diagnostic payload separated from the rockets. The author was the principal designer of this equipment, and the results of experiments become foundation for his PhD Thesis Experimental investigation of the wave processes under artificial injection of electrons into ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth (ARAKS experiment)


Wideband wave equipment Spectre installed onboard diagnostic package separated from rockets during two launches of ARAKS experiment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Publications based on the results of Wideband measurements in ARAKS experiment

 

1.            G. A. Gousev, Yu. V. Kouchnerevsky, V. V. Migoulin, S. A. Poulinets, Experience Sovetique Spectre, in Mesure des ondes dans L'experience ARAKS, St-Maur-des-Fosses, 1976, p. 76-190

2.            G. A. Gusev, Yu. V. Kushnerevsky, S. A. Pulinets, V. V. Selegey, Wideband study of the emissions within the plasma under injection of the electrons into ionosphere, in Dynamics of the Space Plasma, Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1976, p.108-120

3.            G. A. Gusev, Yu. V. Kushnerevsky, S. A. Pulinets, V. V. Selegey, Wave phenomena under injection of energetic electrons into the ionosphere in ARAKS experiment, in Physics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1978, p.134-143

4.            S. A. Pulinets, On the dynamics of the emission in the whistler frequency band in ARAKS experiment, in Physics of the ionosphere and magnetosphere, Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1978, p.144-151

5.            G. A. Gusev, Yu. V. Kushnerevsky, I. A. Zhulin, V. V. Migulin and S. A. Pulinets, Broad-band wave measurements in the ARAKS experiment, Space Science Instrumentation, 4, N 2, 1978, 171- 176.

6.            M. Dechambre, Yu. V. Kushnerevsky, J. Lavergnat, S. A. Pulinets, R. Pellat, Waves observed by the ARAKS experiments: Generalities, Annales de Geophysique, 36 N3, 1980, p.323-332.

7.            M. Dechambre, G. A. Gusev, Yu. V. Kushnerevsky, J. Lavergnat, R. Pellat, S. A. Pulinets, V. V. Selegei, I. A. Zhulin, High-Frequency Waves in the ARAKS Experiment, Annales de Geophysique, 36 N3, 1980, p.333-340.

8.            M. Dechambre, Yu. V. Kushnerevsky, J. Lavergnat, R. Pellat, S. A. Pulinets, V. V. Selegei. Waves observed by the ARAKS experiments: the whistler mode. Annales de Geophysique, 36 N3, 1980, p.341-350.

9.            K. I. Gringauz, N. I. Izhovkina, S. A. Pulinets, H. Reme, A. Saint-Marc, L. P. Smirnowa, N. M. Shutte, J. M. Vigo, I. A. Zhulin. Strong Wave-particle effects during downward energetic electron injections into the ionosphere. Annales de Geophysique, 36 N3, 1980, p.371-373

10.        Yu. V. Kushnerevsky, S. A. Pulinets, I. A. Zhulin. Plasma noise in the pauses between the series of electron gun injections in the second ARAKS experiment. Annales de Geophysique, 36 N3, 1980, p.415-418.

11.        E. V. Mishin, S. A. Pulinets, On the mechanism of whistler-frequency emission in the ARAKS experiments, Annales de Geophysique, 36, N3, 1980, p.419-422.

12.        S.A.Pulinets, Experimental investigation of the wave processes under artificial injection of electrons into ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth (ARAKS experiment), PhD Degree Thesis in Geophysics, Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, USSR Academy of Sciences 1980, 216 p.

13.        K.I.Gringauz, I.A.Zhulin, N.I.Izhovkina, S.A. Pulinets, L.P.Smirnova, N.M.Shutte, Observation of the stimulated precipitation of the magnetospheric electrons caused by the artificial injection of electron pulses into the ionosphere, Cosmic Research, 19, N 1, 1981, p. 146-149.

14.        M.Dechambre, J.Lavergnat, Yu.V.Kusnerevsky, S.A.Pulinets, I.A. Zhulin. The waves observed in the ARAKS-North experiment. Advances in Space Research, 1, 1981, p.89-95.

15.        Yu.V.Kusnerevsky, S.A.Pulinets, The waves observed in the ARAKS East experiment. Advances in Space Research, 1, 1981, p.97-101

16.        N.I.Izhovkina, K.I.Gringauz, S.A.Pulinets, N.M.Shutte, On the stimulated precipitation of electrons and the mechanism of wave generation in the whistler range in the ARAKS experiment, International Symposium "Active experiments in space", Alpbach, 24-28 May 1983 (ESA SP-195, July 1983) p. 137-140

17.        S.A. Pulinets, On the radio-emission of the injected electron beam from the point of view of ionospheric plasma diagnostics, Cosmic Research 22, N5, 1984 p. 807-809.

18.        L.S.Evlashin, N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, T.M.Tarasova, E.P.Trushkina, On the stimulated precipitation of the magnetospheric plasma in the magnetically conjugated region by the optical observation data in the ARAKS experiments, Preprint IZMIRAN N60(471), 1984, 9 p.

19.        L.S.Evlashin, N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, T.M.Tarasova, E.P.Trushkina, On the stimulated precipitation of the magnetospheric plasma in the magnetically conjugated region by the optical observation data in the ARAKS experiments, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 25, N1, 1985, p. 160-162.

20.        K.I.Gringauz, N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, N.M.Shutte, On the mechanisms of emission and transformation of the whistler band waves observed in the experiment with electron pulses injection into the ionosphere (ARAKS), Cosmic Res., 23, N3, 1985, p.466-470.

21.        N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, E.P.Trushkina, On the nonlinear mechanism of the VLF emission bursts in the pauses between the electron pulses injection at the ARAKS experiment, in Solar wind and near-Earth processes, Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1986, p.147-160

22.        N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, Electrostatic and electromagnetic VLF emission by the experimental data from the rockets and satellites, IZMIRAN Preprint, N33(647), 1986, 20 p.

23.        N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, The beam electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, IZMIRAN Preprint, 1986, N55(649), 20 p.

24.        N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, E.P.Trushkina, The measured and modeled whistler spectra comparison for the ARAKS experiment, Cosmic Res., 24, N 1 1986, p. 139-143.

25.        N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, N.M.Shutte, On the resonance electrons dynamics within the electromagnetic field of whistlers propagating along the geomagnetic field lines, IKI Preprint, 1987, N1255, 20 p.

26.        N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, E.P.Trushkina, On the effect of the near rocket plasma parameters on the VLF emission, Cosmic Res. 25, N 3, 1987, p. 467-470.

1.            N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, On the electrostatic VLF emission by the data of measurements on the rockets and satellites, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 27, N 2, 1987, p. 270-273.

2.            N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, E.P.Trushkina, On the cyclotron emission absorbtion within the skin-layer at ARAKS experiment, Cosmic Res., 25, N 2, 1987, p. 216-221.

3.            N.I.Izhovkina, A.Kiraga, Z.Klos, S.A.Pulinets, Bernstein modes in the presence of low density electron fluxes with suprathermal velocities, IZMIRAN Preprint, N13(763), 1988, 11 p.

4.            L.S.Evlashin, N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, G.S.Stepnov, T.M.Tarasova, E.P.Trushkina, The trapped electrons diffusion on the VLF-waves and stimulated precipitation in the magnetically-conjugated region, in Interplanetary medium and its magnetospheric manifestation, Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1988, p. 146-154.

5.            N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, E.P.Trushkina, On the particular change of current system in the near rocket vicinity by the VLF spectra data, registered during plasma generator action, in Interplanetary medium and its magnetospheric manifestation, Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1988, p. 155-167.

6.            N.I.Izhovkina, A.Kiraga, Z.Klos, S.A.Pulinets, Bernstein modes in the presence of low density electron streams with suprathermal velocities, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 29, N4, 1989, p. 604-608.

7.            K.I.Gringauz, N.I.Izhovkina, S.A.Pulinets, V.A.Fiodorov, N.M.Shutte, On the mechanisms of emission on plasma frequency in experiments with electron beams within the ionosphere, Geomagnetism and Aeronomy, 29, N4, 1989, p. 659-661.

 

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